Thermo-Calc can be used to predict thermophysical and phase-based properties as well as to simulate material behavior throughout the materials life cycle for Fe-based alloys and a wide range of steels.
Fe-based alloys and steels cover a broad range of materials, which can be subdivided into stainless steels, high-speed steels, tool steels, high-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, cast irons, corrosion-resistant high strength steels, low-density steels and also cemented carbides.
Handbook data typically covers only the most common alloys, and additionally does not always take into account variations in chemistry or processing conditions. Where this data is missing, Thermo-Calc can be used to fill the gaps in material property data and make predictions of material behavior throughout the materials life cycle.
Calculate the following based on your actual alloy chemistry:
Thermophysical properties, such as:
Specific heat, enthalpy, latent heat, viscosity, density as a function of temperature, coefficients of thermal expansion, and more
Phase-based properties, such as:
Critical transformation temperatures such as A1 and A3, amounts and compositions of phases, solubility limits, activities, phase diagrams, and more
Solvus temperatures and volume fractions of phases such as σ, α’, and carbides as well as nitrides and carbonitrides
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium solidification, such as:
Thermo-Calc has many applications to steels and Fe-based alloys. Below are three such examples.
Critical Temperatures and Phase Fractions in P91 Steels
P91 steels rely on a quench and temper microstructure to obtain good creep strength and toughness. If the A1 temperature is exceeded during tempering, then untempered martensite will remain after heat treatment, leading to poor toughness. Phase transformation temperatures can vary with chemistry and this can be calculated using Thermo-Calc.
This figure shows the equilibrium phases as a function of temperature for a nominal composition of P91, with A1, A3, liquidus, and solidus listed on the diagram.
A1 Temperature Distribution for P91 Base Metal and Weld Filler Metals
In the above example, the A1 temperature was calculated based on a nominal composition of P91. This temperature can vary with composition and can be different between the weld metal and base metal, but this is hard to capture for every possible heat of material without performing many experiments. With Thermo-Calc, you can calculate this across the entire composition space.
The histogram here shows the A1 temperature calculated for 200 compositions each that fall within the P91 base metal and two weld filler metal matching composition specifications. As can be seen, if the post weld heat treat temperature is selected according to the base metal compositions, the A1 temperature could be exceeded in the weld metal resulting in fresh martensite formation.
Martensite Content for 4130 Low Alloy Steel
Many low alloy steels, such as 4130, rely on a quench and temper microstructure to obtain desired mechanical properties. The martensite transformation start and finish temperatures can vary as a function of chemical composition. The Ms temperature can be easy to measure, but it is difficult to determine the martensite fractions as a function of temperature. This is important to determine if any retained austenite may be present. With Thermo-Calc, the martensite fraction can be calculated as a function of temperature for different compositions.
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