For promoting exchange of the metallurgical technologies in the steel industry in the new period, The Chinese Society for Metals (CSM) launched and organized an international symposium named as “China Symposium on Sustainable Steelmaking Technology” in 2018. The first Symposium was held in Tianjin, China on October 25-26, 2018 and received a highly positive response from the metallurgical industry and academy. Afterwards, it will be held every three years in other major Chinese cities.
Join Our Keynote Presentation
Thermodynamic and kinetic simulation of the iron- and steelmaking process using Thermo-Calc and CALPHAD type database: towards a digital twin of the melt shop
Authors: A. Nicholas Grundy, Ralf Retting, and Lina Kjellqvist Date: December 15, 2021
Time: 8:40 a.m. CET
Thermo-Calc Software is a well-known developer of large CALPHAD-type databases and software for property and phase diagram calculations based on Gibbs energy minimization. A database for oxides, TCOX, has been available since 1992 and development has been greatly accelerated in recenet years placing special emphasis on steel-slag interactions.
Steelmaking and steel refining is on one side governed by fundamental thermodynamics, that determines how the steel chemistry and also inclusion type, composition and amount will change on reaction with slag phase, refractory material, alloy additions and gas atmosphere. Thermodynamics also governs the heat balance, so how steel temperature will change due to heat input and chemical reactions taking place during the process. Thermo-Calc Software is a well-known developer of large CALPHAD-type databases and software for multicomponent and multi-phase calculations based on Gibbs energy minimization. The TCOX database has been specifically developed for thermodynamic calculations of steel making and -refining. It combines all relevant phases ion one single database and has been validated for a wide range of steel and slag compositions.
The other important aspect of steelmaking and -refining is reaction kinetics, so how fast thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Recently, kinetic models have been implemented in Thermo-Calc’s Process Metallurgy Module (PMM) using the effective equilibrium reaction zone (EERZ) model. This development now allows full simulations of steelmaking and -refining processes.
The graphical user interface of the PMM enables simple and intuitive set-up of processes such as BOF, EAF, LF, VOD/AOD, etc… for the analysis and process optimization for different grades with different quality requirements. The model has been validated for several steelmaking processes including LF and VOD.
All functionalities of the PMM are now being integrated into TC-Python, a software development kit, that allows setting up and running process simulations from within a Python code. This allows the implementation of complex industrial processes and makes it possible to directly access steel plant Level 2 process data and chemical analyses and use this data to run process simulations. Such simulations exactly mirror the steel production process and can be considered as digital twin of the melt shop. The simulations can be used to understand the origin of quality issues and unexpected events that might have occurred during production or to investigate alternative processing routes that might have lower total production costs, have lower environmental impact, or might meet more stringent quality requirements.
Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc.
HubSpot sets this cookie to keep track of sessions and to determine if HubSpot should increment the session number and timestamps in the __hstc cookie.
This cookie is set by Hubspot whenever it changes the session cookie. The __hssrc cookie set to 1 indicates that the user has restarted the browser, and if the cookie does not exist, it is assumed to be a new session.
5 months 27 days
This is the main cookie set by Hubspot, for tracking visitors. It contains the domain, initial timestamp (first visit), last timestamp (last visit), current timestamp (this visit), and session number (increments for each subsequent session).
The _ga cookie, installed by Google Analytics, calculates visitor, session and campaign data and also keeps track of site usage for the site's analytics report. The cookie stores information anonymously and assigns a randomly generated number to recognize unique visitors.
This cookie is installed by Google Analytics.
A variation of the _gat cookie set by Google Analytics and Google Tag Manager to allow website owners to track visitor behaviour and measure site performance. The pattern element in the name contains the unique identity number of the account or website it relates to.
Installed by Google Analytics, _gid cookie stores information on how visitors use a website, while also creating an analytics report of the website's performance. Some of the data that are collected include the number of visitors, their source, and the pages they visit anonymously.
Linkedin set this cookie to store information about the time a sync took place with the lms_analytics cookie.
YouTube sets this cookie via embedded youtube-videos and registers anonymous statistical data.
5 months 27 days
HubSpot sets this cookie to keep track of the visitors to the website. This cookie is passed to HubSpot on form submission and used when deduplicating contacts.
Wistia sets this cookie to collect data on visitor interaction with the website's video-content, to make the website's video-content more relevant for the visitor.