Application Example

Titanium Alloy Design for Additive Manufacturing

This example shows how the Property Model Calculator in Thermo-Calc can be used to find the optimal composition for a titanium-based alloy to be used for additive manufacturing applications.

Relevant Topics

  • Property Model Calculator
  • Alloy Design
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Titanium-based Alloys
  • Cost Estimation
  • Density Calculation
  • Solidification Temperature Range

About the Example

Additive manufacturing provides new opportunities to fabricate complex parts. However, traditional alloys may not be readily printable using techniques such as laser powder bed fusion. As such, the development of new alloys may be necessary to fully realize the benefits of additive manufacturing technologies. 

In this example, inspired by the work of Ackers et al. [A. Ackers, O. M. D. M. Messé, U. Hecht, J. Alloys Compd. 866, 158965 (2021)], batch calculations within the Property Model Calculator are used to identify candidate titanium alloy chemistries for biomedical implant applications using the thermodynamic TCS Ti/TiAl-based Alloys Database (TCTI). To optimize printability and material weight, the liquidus temperature, solidus temperature, and density of 2000 randomized titanium alloy chemistries from the Ti-Nb-Zr-Sn-Ta-Fe-Mo system are calculated. An estimate of alloy cost is also made for each alloy. Taken together, this methodology can be used to identify compositions of interest and accelerate material development activities.


The left plot shows the calculated liquidus and solidus temperature data of 2000 randomized chemistries from the Ti-Nb-Zr-Sn-Ta-Fe-Mo system, and the right plot shows the density for the 2000 randomized chemistries.

How to Run the Calculation

To run this example, open Thermo-Calc and navigate to the Help Menu → Example Files… → Property Models → General. This example includes one calculation file:

  • PM_G_13_Ti_Alloy_Design_for_AM: requires a license for Thermo-Calc 2022b or newer and the Titanium and TiAl-Alloys Database TCTI4 or newer.

This example also includes a PDF with in-depth explanations of all the calculations and interpretation of the results.

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